L’exclusion scolaire est l’une des principales problématiques liées à l’éducation en Afrique Subsaharienne. Le terme exclusion scolaire recouvre la notion de l’exclusion involontaire, dont sont victimes plusieurs enfants, causée par des facteurs externes tels que la pauvreté, les troubles sociaux, économiques et des facteurs internes tels que la qualité de l’encadrement et les infrastructures.

Selon les données statistiques publiées par L’UNESCO[1], près de 263 millions d’enfants en Afrique ne sont pas scolarisés. Près d’un tiers de jeunes subit l’exclusion scolaire. La tranche d’âge de ces jeunes varie entre 12 et 17 ans. On note près de 60% de jeunes âgés de 14 à 17 ans non scolarisés et parmi ce pourcentage on relève 36% de filles.

Ces statistiques démontrent l’existence de réelles causes étant à la base de l’exclusion scolaire en Afrique Subsaharienne.

 

Les causes de l’exclusion scolaire en Afrique sub-saharienne

La pauvreté : la pauvreté est un réel problème pour plusieurs familles dont les enfants ont l’âge d’être scolarisés. Selon les chiffres publiés en 2018 par la Banque Mondiale, la pauvreté touche plus de 41% de la population[2]. L’éducation est impactée car beaucoup de familles n’arrivent pas à assumer les charges scolaires de leurs enfants. Ces derniers sont laissés à leur propre compte et sans accompagnement.

Les inégalités : la pauvreté a développé une discrimination liée aux sexes. Plusieurs familles dans les régions pauvres valorisent l’éducation des garçons à celle des jeunes filles. Cette discrimination est née de la manière de penser de certains parents qui considèrent que un garçon est plus intelligent qu’une fille et cette dernière est destinée au foyer. De ce fait, la famille préfère consacrer ses ressources à l’éducation du garçon.

Les mariages précoces et grossesses : le mariage précoce n’a seulement pas de conséquences graves sur la santé de la jeune fille mais également sur son éducation. Le mariage pour la jeune fille est le début d’une aventure où elle ne pourra plus se concentrer sur les études. Généralement, elle doit quitter l’école pour prendre soin de son mari, de sa grossesse et de ses enfants. Par conséquent, elle se retrouve sans éducation scolaire, sans métier et sans ressources financières dans un foyer parfois dominé par les violences conjugales.

Les infrastructures scolaires : l’une des causes de l’exclusion scolaire est l’insuffisance de l’offre scolaire[3]. Dans certains milieux éloignés, on trouve très peu d’écoles alors que la demande de scolarisation est très forte. Face à cette situation certains enfants n’iront pas à l’école, soit parce que les classes sont trop pleines, soit parce que l’école est trop éloignée de leur maison. Surtout pour les enfants en précarité, cette situation ne favorise par leur inclusion. Le nombre élevé d’élèves dans les classes ne favorise pas la concentration et l’apprentissage ; ainsi, conduisent à un taux d’échec et de redoublement importants. Le redoublement constituant une charge financière supplémentaire pour certains parents, ils préfèrent convaincre leurs enfants à quitter l’école pour des activités champêtres ou artisanales sans objectifs précis.

Parlant des infrastructures scolaires en Afrique, il est aussi important de mentionner le manque des bibliothèques pour favoriser la lecture des enfants dans les écoles, des outils de la technologie pour l’apprentissage de base, des infrastructures sanitaires (toilettes), de l’eau potable, de l’électricité en permanence et de centres pour favoriser l’épanouissement et la promotion des activités sportifs.

L’assistance sociale et scolaire des handicapés : la méconnaissance de la prise en charge de certains handicaps est également un facteur d’exclusion scolaire. Dans les écoles en Afrique, il y a une insuffisance de structures spécialisées pour accueillir les enfants présentant des handicaps, notamment l’autisme et la trisomie 21. Cette situation s’explique par un faible engagement dans la création des structures spécialisées pour ces enfants.

 

Les approches pour réduire l’exclusion scolaire

L’amélioration de la qualité de l’enseignement primaire passe par la disponibilité d’équipements adéquats et de ressources humaines qualifiées. Des programmes de construction de bâtiments scolaires, de bibliothèques, de salles de classe pouvant accueillir un nombre défini d’enfants par niveau d’étude doivent être mis en place. La formation des enseignants est également un levier de l’inclusion scolaire. Les décideurs doivent mettre en place les structures nécessaires pour former un grand nombre d’enseignants qui seront placés en fonction des besoins dans les écoles des milieux urbains et ruraux. Les enfants pourront ainsi bénéficier d’un suivi personnalisé.

Motiver les enfants en favorisant les activités extra-scolaires comme le sport, les ateliers, les activités sociales ou civiques, permettra aux enfants de maintenir le goût pour les études. Si l’éducation de base est agréable, les enfants développeront la motivation nécessaire pour aller loin dans les études. Dans ce sens, l’association Afreek’Ed prévoit d’initier des ateliers de discussion, et d’apprentissage dans les domaines du civisme, de la morale, de la science, de l’informatique, et de créer des espaces d’épanouissement dans les écoles.

L’éducation des enfants nécessite non seulement l’apport des enseignants mais aussi le soutien du cercle familial. Il faut donc sensibiliser les familles sur les bienfaits de l’éducation pour tous. Cette sensibilisation peut se faire à travers les réunions entre les parents d’élèves et les enseignants afin d’identifier les lacunes des enfants ainsi que les pistes d’amélioration. Une autre mesure pour garantir le progrès des enfants est de les inscrire à des cours de répétition. L’association Afreek’Ed répond à ce besoin par son programme de cours de répétition déjà en place en Côte d’Ivoire depuis 2017 et qui s’étendra en 2021 au Togo.

Aujourd’hui, l’inclusion scolaire des filles devient une priorité. Selon les données de l’Institut Statistiques de l’UNESCO, 9 millions de filles âgées de 6 à 11 ans n’iront jamais à l’école contre 6 millions de garçons[4]. Pour éliminer l’inégalité des sexes dans le milieu scolaire, les établissements doivent tenir compte de la parité entre les filles et les garçons. Par exemple, il faudrait créer des clubs de discussion pour tous les enfants sans distinction de sexes. L’idée est d’aider les enfants à s’exprimer librement et défendre leurs droits.

Sur le plan financier, les gouvernements africains peuvent passer une loi pour réduire les frais de scolarité ou même décider la gratuité de l’enseignement jusqu’au lycée. Cette mesure encouragerait les familles défavorisées à inscrire facilement leurs enfants sans se soucier du manque de moyens financiers. Ce soutien pourrait favoriser l’inclusion scolaire et réduire le décrochage scolaire précoce. L’association Afreek’Ed contribue sur ce plan depuis 2016 par son programme d’aide gratuite à l’éducation qui consiste à payer les frais de scolarité et à procurer des fournitures scolaires aux enfants du cours primaire.

 

Sources

[1]Juillet 2016, UNESCO UIS, 263 millions d’enfants et de jeunes ne sont pas scolarisés, publiée le 15 juillet 2016. Consultée le 14 janvier 2021 à l’adresse 263 millions d’enfants et de jeunes ne sont pas scolarisés | UNESCO UIS

[2] La Banque Mondiale, Rapport 2018 sur la pauvreté et la prospérité partagée : compléter le puzzle de la pauvreté, consulté le 27 janvier 2021 à l’adresse Rapport 2018 sur la pauvreté et la prospérité partagée : compléter le puzzle de la pauvreté (banquemondiale.org)

[3] Novembre 2018,  Dr. Sika Glebelho Lazare , Kacou Amoin Elise, La Situation Des Enfants En Dehors Du Systeme Scolaire En Côte d’Ivoire, European Scientific Journal, consulté le 27 janvier 2021 à l’adresse http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2018.v14n31p1

[4] Institut Statistiques de l’UNESCO(ISU), Education en Afrique, Éducation et alphabétisme, consulté le 27 janvier 2021 à l’adresse Éducation en Afrique | UNESCO UIS

 


 

Auteurs

Christelle Tibé DOUTI  et Jean Carlos A. AKIBODE

 

FAQ : pour plus d’amples informations sur nos actions, questions, ou suggestions, veuillez nous contacter sur hello@afreekedfrance.org

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  • hdfilmcehennemi
    Posted on 15 April 2024 at 20 h 00 min

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    Posted on 15 April 2024 at 20 h 01 min

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  • hdfilmcehennemi
    Posted on 16 April 2024 at 4 h 01 min

    Fullhdfilmizlesene ile en yeni vizyon filmler Full HD ve ücretsiz film sizlerle. Orijinal film arşivimizle en kaliteli film izle fırsatı sunuyoruz. Loren Belous

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    Posted on 17 April 2024 at 21 h 25 min

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  • Larryhes
    Posted on 20 April 2024 at 4 h 46 min

    PBN sites
    We’ll build a structure of privately-owned blog network sites!

    Benefits of our PBN network:

    WE DO everything SO THAT GOOGLE doesn’t understand that THIS IS A privately-owned blog network!!!

    1- We purchase domains from different registrars

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  • 注册
    Posted on 21 April 2024 at 23 h 17 min

    I don’t think the title of your article matches the content lol. Just kidding, mainly because I had some doubts after reading the article.

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